Royal Roots

Order of the Garter

On this day, 23 April, in the year of our Lord 1348, the Most Noble Order of the Garter, the highest order of chivalry and the third most prestigious honor in the United Kingdom, was founded. The Order is dedicated to Saint George, England’s patron saint.

The Order’s emblem is a garter with the motto “Honi soit qui mal y pense.”—”Shame on him who thinks evil of it.” Members of the order wear this emblem on ceremonial occasions.

At the time of its foundation, the Order consisted of King Edward III, together with 25 founder knights, listed in ascending order of stall number in St. George’s Chapel. They are all depicted in individual portraits in the Bruges Garter Book, circa 1431.

Listed below are my ancestors who founded or were inducted into the Order of the Garter:


FOUNDING MONARCH

Edward III of England (my 21st great-grandfather through his son Thomas of Woodstock, my 22nd great-grandfather through his son Lionel of Antwerp of Clarence, my three-times 19th and three-times 20th great-grandfather through his son John of Gaunt, and my 20th great-grandfather through his son Edmund of Langley)


FOUNDING KNIGHTS (in order of induction)

#3Thomas Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick (my 20th great-grandfather through his son Thomas de Beauchamp and my 21st great-grandfather through his daughter Philippa de Beauchamp)

#5,  Ralph de Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford, 2nd Baron Stafford (my 20th great-grandfather through his daughter Margaret de Stafford, my 21st great-grandfather through his daughter Jane de Stafford, and my 21st great-grandfather through his son Hugh Stafford)

#7,  Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March (my 21st great-grandfather through his son Edmund de Mortimer)

#9, Bartholomew de Burghersh, 2nd Baron Burghersh (my 21st great-grandfather through his daughter Elizabeth de Burghersh)

#13, Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, 2nd Baron Holand (my 20th great-grandfather through his son Thomas Holland)


OTHER GARTER MEMBERS (in order of induction)

#28, William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (my 22nd great-grandfather through his son Humphrey de Bohun)

#35, Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, jure uxoris 4th Earl of Ulster, 5th Baron of Connaught (my 21st great-grandfather through his daughter Philippa of Clarence)

#36, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (my 19th and my 20th great-grandfather through both his son John Beaufort and my 19th and two-times 20th great-grandfather through his daughter Joan Beaufort)

#37, Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York (my 19th great-grandfather through his son Richard of Conisburgh of Cambridge and my 20th great-grandfather through his daughter Constance of York)

#38, Edward le Despenser, 1st Baron le Despencer (my 20th great-grandfather through his son Thomas le Despenser)

#46, John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby (my 19th great-grandfather through his son Ralph Neville)

#57, Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford (my 20th great-grandfather through his son Edmund Stafford)

#58, Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, 3rd Baron Holand (my 19th great-grandfather through his daughter Margaret Holland, my 20th great-grandfather through his daughter Alianore Holland, and my 20th great-grandfather through his daughter Eleanor Holland)

#66, Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Buckingham, 1st Earl of Essex (my 20th great-grandfather through his daughter Anne of Gloucester)

#80, Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester, 2nd Baron le Despencer (my 19th great-grandfather through his daughter Isabel le Despenser)

#87, John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (my 18th great-grandfather through his daughter Joan and my 19th great-grandfather through his son Edmund)

#89, John Montagu, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, 5th Baron Montagu (my 20th great-grandfather through his son Thomas Montagu)

#99, Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, Count of Aumale (my 18th great-grandfather through his daughter Anne Beauchamp and my 19th great-grandfather through his daughter Eleanor Beauchamp)

#104, Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford, 6th Baron Audley (my 19th great-grandfather through his son Humphrey Stafford)

#105, Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, 4th Baron Neville de Raby (my 18th great-grandfather through his daughter Cecily Neville, my 19th great-grandfather through his son Richard Neville, and my 19th great-grandfather through his daughter Anne Neville)

#109, John Stanley, King of Mann, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (my 19th great-grandfather through his son John Stanley)

#121, Thomas Montagu, 4th Earl of Salisbury, 6th Baron Montagu, 5th Baron Monthermer, Count of Perche (my 19th great-grandfather through his daughter Alice Montagu)

#145, Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, 6th Earl of Stafford (my 18th great-grandfather through his son Humphrey Stafford)

#148, Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (my 17th great-grandfather through his son George Plantagenet)

#150, Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset (my 18th great-grandfather through his daughter Margaret Beaufort)

#152, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury (my 18th great-grandfather through his son Richard Neville)

#174, Thomas Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley (my 17th great-grandfather through his daughter Catherine Stanley)

#185, George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence (my 16th great-grandfather through his daughter Margaret Plantagenet)

#211, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham (my 16th great-grandfather through his son Edward Stafford)

#248, Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham (my 15th great-grandfather through his son Henry Stafford)

#253, Richard Pole (my 15th great-grandfather through his daughter Ursula Pole)


LADIES OF THE GARTER (in order of induction)

  • Philippa of Hainault, Queen Consort of England (my 21st great-grandmother through her son Thomas of Woodstock, my 22nd great-grandmother through her son Lionel of Antwerp of Clarence, my three-times 19th and three-times 20th great-grandmother through her son John of Gaunt, and my 20th great-grandmother through her son Edmund of Langley)
  • Isabella di Castile, Duchess of York (my 19th great-grandmother through her son Richard of Conisburgh of Cambridge and my 20th great-grandmother through her daughter Constance of York)
  • Eleanor de Bohun, Countess of Essex, Countess of Buckingham, Duchess of Gloucester, Duchess of Aumale (my 20th great-grandmother through her daughter Anne of Gloucester)
  • Constance of York, Countess of Gloucester, Baroness le Despencer (my 19th great-grandmother through her daughter Isabel le Despenser)
  • Katherine de Roet, Duchess of Lancaster (my 19th and my 20th great-grandmother through both her son John Beaufort and my 19th and two-times 20th great-grandmother through her daughter Joan Beaufort)
  • Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent (my 19th great-grandmother through her daughter Margaret Holland, my 20th great-grandmother through her daughter Alianore Holland, and my 20th great-grandmother through her daughter Eleanor Holland)
  • Margaret Holland, Countess of Somerset, Duchess of Clarence (my 18th great-grandmother through her daughter Joan Beaufort and my 19th great-grandmother through her son Edmund Beaufort)
  • Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland (my 18th great-grandmother through her daughter Cecily Neville, my 19th great-grandmother through her son Richard Neville, and my 19th great-grandmother through her daughter Anne Neville)
  • Maud Francis, Countess of Salisbury (my 20th great-grandmother through her son Thomas Montagu)
  • Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Worcester and Warwick (my 18th great-grandmother through her daughter Anne Beauchamp)

#englishhistory     #familyhistory     #genealogy

Categories: Cole-Marriner Line, Famous Faces and Places, On This Day, Royal Roots, Watts-Stark Line | Tags: , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Jeanne de Navarre

On this day, 2 April, in the year 1305, Jeanne de Navarre died. She was my 22nd great-grandmother.

Born on 14 January 1273, in the Champagne region of France, Jeanne was the daughter of Henri “le Gros” de Navarre and Blanche d’Artois.

Sadly, she never had the opportunity to know her father, as he died on 22 July 1274; Jeanne was only a year and a half old.

Upon the death of her father, Jeanne became Countess of Champagne and queen regnant of Navarre. Her mother served as her guardian and regent in Navarre. Various powers, both foreign and local, sought to take advantage of the minority of the heiress and the perceived weakness of the female regent; consequently, her mother sought protection at the court of Philip III of France.

In 1274, Blanche and young Jeanne arrived in France. In 1275, by the Treaty of Orléans, Jeanne was betrothed to the king’s son, and Blanche placed both her daughter and Navarre under the protection of Philip III of France.

On 16 August 1284, at the age of 11, Joan married Philip IV of France.

Then, in 1285, upon the death of Philip III, Jeanne became the queen consort of France. Together, Philip IV and Jeanne had Margaret; Louis X; Blanche; Philip V; Charles IV; Isabella (my 21st great-grandmother); and Robert.

As Queen of France, Jeanne secured the succession, was an efficient mistress of the royal court, and was a dignified first lady. She also purportedly had an exceptional relationship with her husband. The couple was close, and Philip IV was reported to have loved and respected Jeanne deeply.

In 1294, Philip IV appointed Jeanne as Regent of France should their son succeed him as a minor.

Although Jeanne did not have influence over the affairs of France, she was in charge of Navarre and Champagne. She ruled Navarre and Champagne differently, however.

Jeanne never visited Navarre; it was ruled in her stead by governors who had been appointed by her father-in-law or her husband. Unfortunately, these governors were extremely unpopular with the citizens of Navarre, and Jeanne’s absence from the country was resented by some. From afar, edicts were issued in her name, coins were struck in her image, and protection was rendered to religious institutions.

Unlike Navarre, Jeanne governed Champagne more directly. This might have been because Champagne was wealthier and more strategically important than Navarre. Although Philip IV appointed her administrators, Jeanne visited Champagne regularly and is recorded to have participated in all duties as an active independent ruler. For example, in 1297, Jeanne led an army against the Count of Bar, who had invaded Champagne. Jeanne also acted against Bishop Guichard of Troyes, whom she accused of having stolen funds from Champagne.

On 2 April, 1305, Jeanne de Navarre died in Vincennes, France. The cause of death might have been childbirth.

#familyhistory     #frenchhistory     #genealogy

Categories: Famous Faces and Places, On This Day, Royal Roots, Watts-Stark Line | Tags: , , , , , | Leave a comment

John Beaufort

On this day, 16 March 1410, John Beaufort passed away. He was my 18th great-grandfather through his daughter Joan and my 19th great-grandfather through his son Edmund.

Born circa 1373, John Beaufort was the eldest child of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his mistress Katherine Swynford.

In both 1390 and 1397, John and his siblings were declared legitimate by Parliament, as well as by the Pope in September 1396, after his parents were married. Despite being made legitimate by both the church and state, Henry IV barred John and his Beaufort siblings from succession to the throne, even though they too were the grandchildren of Edward III.

Between May and September 1390, John Beaufort embarked on the Barbary Crusade, led by Louis II, Duke of Bourbon. The objective of this crusade was to curtail piracy in and around Mahdia; however, the siege proved unsuccessful.

In 1394, John Beaufort served in Lithuania with the Teutonic Knights.

On 10 February 1397, John was created Earl of Somerset. Also in February 1397, he also was appointed constable of Dover Castle, warden of the Cinque Ports, and admiral of the Irish fleet. In May 1397, John Beaufort’s admiralty was extended to include the northern fleet.

In the summer of 1397, John Beaufort helped Richard II extricate himself from the power of the Lords Appellant. As a reward, John Beaufort was married to Margaret Holland, niece of Richard II on 27 September 1397. (Together, John Beaufort and Margaret Holland had six children.)

On 29 September 1397, John Beaufort was named Marquess of Somerset and Marquess of Dorset.

In late 1397, John Beaufort was honored as a Knight of the Garter and was appointed Lieutenant of Aquitaine.

In 1398, Richard II banished John Beaufort’s half-brother Henry Bolingbroke (a.k.a. Henry IV) from England; however, John Beaufort remained in Richard II’s good graces.

In 1399, Henry Bolingbroke came back to England and deposed Richard II. As the reigning king, Henry IV rescinded the titles Marquess of Somerset and Marquess of Dorset, making John Beaufort only Earl of Somerset again. Despite this demotion, John Beaufort remained loyal to Henry IV.

In 1404, John Beaufort was named Constable of England.

Then, on 16 March 1410, at the age of 37, John Beaufort died in the Hospital of St Katharine’s by the Tower. He was buried in St Michael’s Chapel in Canterbury Cathedral.

#englishhistory     #familyhistory     #genealogy

Categories: Famous Faces and Places, On This Day, Royal Roots, Watts-Stark Line | Tags: , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Gateway Ancestor: Peter Worden

When tracing ancestors across the centuries, kin are often clustered together in a similar locations, an economic situation, or an ethnic identity.  A gateway ancestor is anyone with known or traceable ancestry from one specific group who marries into another group. Each immigrant from one country to another is a potential gateway, if his/her descendants can then trace his/her ancestry to the original country. Gateways can also occur when someone moves from one distinct social group into another or across distinct religious, economic, or racial barriers.

In the United States, however, the term “gateway ancestor” most commonly is used to refer to colonial immigrants whose ancestry can be traced in the Old World—specifically to gentry, nobility, or royalty. According to Gary Boyd Roberts, author of the book, Royal Descents of 600 Immigrants to the United States, most Americans with significant New England, Quaker, or Southern plantation ancestry are descended from English, Scottish, Welsh, and French royalty, nobility, or gentry.

Why is that?, you might ask. The reason is primogeniture: the right of succession belonging to the firstborn child, typically the eldest son. Many colonists of high social status were the daughters or younger sons of aristocratic families who came to the New World looking for land because, given their gender or birth order, they could not inherit. At least 650 colonists are known to have traceable royal and noble ancestry; approximately 387 of them had descendants.


Both my family and my spouse’s family have several gateway ancestors.  In the first installment, I gave an overview of Edward Foulke, my spouse’s 8th great-grandfather through his mother’s maternal line.

The second gateway ancestor whom I will introduce is Peter Worden, my 12th great-grandfather through my mother’s maternal line. Through his maternal great-great grandfather, Nicholas Rishton, Peter has been proven to descend several times from Charlemagne, Magna Carta barons, and a couple of saints.

Circa 1569, Peter Worden was born in Clayton-le-Woods, Lancashire, England to Robert Worden (1534–1580) and Isabel Worthington (1547–1580).

Circa 1604, Peter Worden married Margaret (Grice) Wall. She was the widow of Anthony Wall of Chingle Hall, who died sometime between February 1603 and March 1604, according to a 1607 Palatine Chancery Court action. Margaret, born sometime between 1568 and 1572, was the daughter of Thomas Grice and Alice, of Warrington, Lancashire, England.

Together, Peter and Margaret had three children: Elizabeth (born circa 1605); Bridget (born circa 1607); and Peter, my 11th great-grandfather (born circa 1609).

Between 1609 to 1613, Peter Worden (recorded as Peter Werden, gent.) appeared as a juror for nine inquisitions.

In 1612, after only nine years of marriage, Peter Worden’s wife Margaret died. He was left with five stepchildren from Margaret’s previous marriage and three of his own children, with the youngest, Peter, being only about three years old.

Although he was a gentleman, Peter Worden was also a merchant of textiles. His ancestors had acquired Burgess rights, and these rights had been passed down to their progeny. Burgess rights were a valuable asset, necessary for trading purposes. Peter Worden’s name appears in the Preston Guild Roll for 1622. He was listed as being a Foreign Burgess in the records of the town of Preston, just five miles from Clayton. Foreign referred to the fact that he was not a native of the town but an outsider.

Peter Worden held a lease on a shop in Preston’s Moothall, a two-story building approximately 35 feet by 70 feet, housing the town Council chamber and offices on the second floor and businesses on the first. Peter’s shop was next to the stairs at the north end of the building. Early archives list the following mention of Peter’s lease:

Item of Elizabeth Weren widdowe for on shop on the east side of moothall next adjoyning to the staires at the north end of the hall with a standing (open stall) at the south end of the hall formerly demised to Peter Werden by lease dated Primo Oct XVth Jac ye improved yearly rent of L01-15s-00d.

This date would indicate that Peter Worden held a lease on his shop and stand in October 1617.

In 1625, Peter Worden’s daughter Elizabeth bore an illegitimate child, whom she named John Lewis. The child was the product of an adulterous affair she had with John Lewis, a married vicar who was defrocked and debarred either because of this adulterous affair or for some other shenanigans—it seems he was rather good at being bad. A few years later, Elizabeth married Hugh Swansey and had another son, Robert.

On 19 November 1628, Peter Worden’s younger daughter Bridget died. She never married.

About 1628, Peter accepted the office of County Aulnager (or Alnager), “an officer in a port or market town responsible for ensuring that all cloth sold was woven in the correct length and width laid down by statute (standards).” He also was a member of the town council of Preston, Lancashire, England.

Peter Worden was last recorded in Preston on 21 January 1629, when, according to the early archives of Preston Borough, he loaned eight shillings to the Borough for a project concerning common lands.

In 1630, the town of Preston was ravaged by the plague. Prior to the outbreak, the town of Preston had a population of nearly 3,000; however, due of this pandemic, 1,069 residents perished.

In July 1635 in Kirkham, Lancashire, Peter Worden’s elder daughter Elizabeth died.

Circa 1636, Peter Worden, his son Peter, and his grandson John Lewis immigrated to the Colony of Massachusetts.

On 7 January 1638, Peter Worden was listed as “Old Worden” in a list of inhabitants of Yarmouth, Massachusetts. At the time, there were only four men in Yarmouth to whom land grants had been made.

On 5 March 1638, the last will and testament of Peter Worden was proved:

The Last Will and Testament of Peter WORDEN of Yarmouth ye elder, deceased, proved at ye General Court held at Plymouth, the fifth day of March in ye XIIIth year of ye reign of our sovereign Lord Charles, King of England AC1638, by ye oathes of Mr. Nicholas Sympkins, Hugh Tillie & Giles Hopkins as followith, viz “Be it known unto all men to whome this doth or may concern, that I, Peter Worden, of Yarmouth in New England, in Plymouth Patten, being very sick, in this Year of Our Lord 1638 and on ye ninth day of February, do make my last will to testify unto all that I Peter Worden, do give and bequeath unto Peter Worden, my only sonne and heir, and in the presense of Nicholas Sympkins Hugh Tillie and Giles Hopkins, I do make him my whole executor to whom I do give all my lands, leases & tenaments with goods movable and unmovable in the Town of Clayton in the County of Lankcester. Likewise I do give unto Peter my son all my goods which I have at this present in New England. My will is my son is to give John Lewis one nate goat, also my will is my son is to give my grandchild such money as is due for the keeping of goats and calves until this day and that my son is with the money to buy a kid or dispose it otherwise for his use. Also one bed or bolster, three blankets, also my son is to have the tuition of my grandchild until he be at the age of one and twenty years of age, also my will is he shall find him with meat, drink, and clothes and at the three last years of the twenty-one years also to have forty shillings the years after and above, for to add to his stock with the sow pig when the sow pigs — s/Peter WORDEN 1/s.

In March 1639, Peter Worden died in Yarmouth and was buried in Worden Cemetery in Dennis, Massachusetts. And, on 5 March 1639, Peter Worden’s will was probated. (It is interesting to note that Peter Worden’s will was the first one printed in the Plymouth Court Records. A copy of his will is on file in the Barnstable Probate Court.)

#englishhistory    #familyhistory     #genealogy

Categories: Cole-Marriner Line, Immigrant Ancestors, Royal Roots | Tags: , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Urraca of León, Castile, and Galicia

On this date, 8 March 1126, Urraca of León, Castile, and Galicia, passed away. She was my 27th great-grandmother through her grandson Fernando II of Léon, my 28th great-grandmother through her grandson Sancho III of Castile, and my 28th great-grandmother through her granddaughter Sancha of Castile.

Urraca was born circa April 1079 in Burgos, Spain to Alfonso VI and Constance of Burgundy. As the eldest and only surviving child of Alfonso VI, Urraca was heir presumptive to Castile and León until 1107, when her father recognized his illegitimate son Sancho as his heir.

Urraca’s place in the line of succession, however, made her the focus of dynastic politics.  Circa 1086, Raymond of Burgundy arrived in Spain. In 1087, Urraca, who was eight years old at time, was betrothed and possibly even wedded to Raymond of Burgundy. Although canon law set a minimum age for marriage at 12 years old for women, exceptions did occur. Some evidence that they might have been married, instead of just betrothed, was in protocol documents, which, almost immediately, began labeling Raymond of Burgundy as Alfonso VI’s son-in-law. Nevertheless, it appears their marriage was formalized by 1090, when Alfonso VI issued a charter to the church of Palencia in their name.

Together, Urraca and Raymond had two surviving children: daughter Sancha and son Alfonso VII of Léon (my 27th great-grandfather through his son Sancho III, my 26th great-grandfather through his son Fernando II, and my 27th great-grandfather through his daughter Sancha.)

In 1107, Raymond of Burgundy died. In late September 1107, Urraca succeeded her late husband as ruler of Galicia.

In 1108, Urraca again became the heir presumptive to her father when her brother Sancho died at the Battle of Uclés. Alfonso VI reunited the nobles of Toledo, announcing that he had chosen Urraca to succeed him. The nobles agreed with his choice, on the condition that Urraca would marry again. Several candidates for her hand were proposed, including Count Gómez González and Count Pedro González de Lara. However, Alfonso VI feared that the rivalries between the nobles of Castile and of Léon would increase if Urraca were to wed one of these suitors; therefore, Alfonso VI decided that Urraca would marry a relative, Alfonso I of Aragon, thereby uniting Castile and Léon with Aragon.

When Alfonso VI died on 30 June 1109, Urraca ascended to the throne. In October 1109, in accordance with her father’s wishes, she married Alfonso I of Aragon. For Alfonso I of Aragon, the match was politically advantageous, while for Urraca it meant a loss of the power she had held since 1107.

Unfortunately, many were opposed to the marriage. The marriage agreement between Urraca and Alfonso I stipulated that if either party left the other against the other person’s will, he or she would forfeit the loyalty of his or her followers. Alfonso I of Aragon promised not to leave Urraca for reasons of blood relationship or excommunication. If Alfonso I of Aragon and Urraca had a child, that child would inherit Alfonso I of Aragon’s territories jointly with Urraca, in the event of Alfonso I of Aragon’s death. If no child were conceived, Urraca and her heirs would be the inheritors. If Urraca died first, Alfonso would be entitled to the profits from her lands until he died; following his death, the lands would fall to her son by her first marriage, Alfonso VI.

In the summer of 1109, the Muslims threatened to occupy Aragon. Alfonso I of Aragon, accompanied by Urraca, defeated the Muslim forces on January 24, 1110.

However, increasing tensions between the couple became more evident, and by May 1110, Urraca and Alfonso I of Aragon had separated. Two years later, Urraca led her forces against those of Alfonso I of Aragon in an attempt to retake Castile, which her estranged husband had seized. By 1113, Alfonso I of Aragon had laid claim to Toledo, Léon, Castile, and Aragon. Finally, in 1114, their marriage was annulled.

With continued fighting between Urraca and Alfonso I of Aragon, Urraca named her son Alfonso VI co-ruler and heir. By the winter of 1116, Urraca had reclaimed most of Castile. By that time, Alfonso I of Aragon was planning to lay siege to the Muslim stronghold of Zaragoza. To free up his forces for this siege, Alfonso I of Aragon negotiated a truce with Urraca in 1117.

In 1118, Alfonso I of Aragon wrested Zaragoza from the Moors. In 1120, he captured Calatayud in 1120. In 1125, he raided Andalusia, encouraging Christians in Muslim lands to settle in his domain. Meanwhile, Urraca focused her attention on securing Toledo.

In 1120, Urraca made the tactical mistake of seizing Bishop Gelmirez, who had served her father but favored a faction surrounding her son following the death of Alfonso VI. The act placed her at risk of excommunication and could have led to her deposition. But by appealing directly to the pope, Urraca escaped excommunication.

On March 8, 1126, Urraca died in Tierra de Campos, Spain. Initially, Uracca’s heir Alfonso VII was refused the crown in favor of Count Pedro Gonzalez of Lara and his brother, Rodrigo Gonzalez, Count Astururias de Santillana. But with the support of his allies, Alfonso VII of Léon ascended to the throne. Alfonso VII of Léon then began to recover the lands that had been lost to his stepfather Alfonso I of Aragon. Finally, in 1134, Alfonso VII of Léon defeated Alfonso I of Aragon, who died in battle.

#familyhistory     #genealogy     #spanishhistory

Categories: Famous Faces and Places, On This Day, Royal Roots, Watts-Stark Line | Tags: , , , , , | 2 Comments

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